📚History Of Delhi & New Delhi : India📚
The story of how the new city the imperial capital of India the New Delhi was built carved and sculpted out from the bushes of a ridge and a nearby hillock New Delhi. it still houses the beaming corridors of power this is a story of the capital after the great uprising of 1857 was suppressed by the British the new East India Company rule also refer to us come people ended to an India team under the direct rule of the British crown with Queen Victoria or Empress the first attack of the British on the old city of Shahjahanabad left it really mutilated and you saw the beginning of the end of that last capital of the Mughal Empire . it was very sad because that was a very very beautiful part of of Delhi.
It was the capital the Red Fort still stands very grand as this Johnny Chong and the channel that ran through it and there’s some wonderful drawings of that period and so on but then. it was mutilated and civil lines came to be in OLD DELHI and the British then started to rule from there so what began with the coming of English traders and merchants for the purpose of Commerce was slowly transformed into an occupation of India the British Raj began an Indian subcontinent in the year 1858 Calcutta the political nerve center of the British was conferred.
The status of the imperial capital but by the turn of 20th century. the British shrilled need to have a rather central place for its capital both geographically and symbolically when the crown decided to shift the capital from Calcutta to Delhi it was because the partition of Bengal hadn’t worked and you know it had got all very complicated and .it was politically very hot the subject and so King Emperor decided why not shift the capital to tell me and Delhi had been the seat of power of many many dynasties. it was then the groundwork for Delia’s coronation as capital began given the ancient cities rich history inglorious past for being the seat of power of several kingdoms through the IRA’s in his letter to the den Secretary of State Viceroy Lord Harding listed elaborate reasons for transferring capital to Delhi .
Mughal Emperors And History of Delhi Sultanate
It’s intimately associated in the minds of Hindus with sacred legends that Veronica Lara still marks the site of the city which they found it and cold in the roster to the Muhammadans it would be a source of unbound gratification to see the ancient capital of Mughals restored the change will strike the imagination of the people of India as nothing else could do it would be hailed with joy by the ruling Chiefs and would be warmly welcomed by the vast majority of Indians throughout. the continent on December the 12th 1911 at the great the leader bar held to coronate then King George the fifth and Queen Mary the announcement of shift capital to Delhi was made. it was here where the grand the leader bar was held 106 years ago the Wilton margin of the space which is now called coronation Park was packed with fully dressed officers and maharaja of erstwhile Indian principalities in front of whom King George announced a shifting of capital from Calcutta to Delhi in 1911 .
New Delhi, India And Delhi Area
When the Delhi Durbar happened and the land was leveled all the princes were invited to Delhi and they all put a very elaborate tents and a huge tented City was created and the king and queen came and at that event the proclamation for the new capital was announced many people were taken by surprise about this because. it wasn’t something that was in the offing it really was a very well kept secret and at that point some very ingenious Indian entrepreneurs of that time came to Delhi and decided to work with. the British to get a contract and so birthing was one of those along with some other Sardar families now always called.
Those fives and their families the first families of New Delhi because they came they left their homes they crossed the border they came here to this new building site looking for work and stayed the foundation of the imperial capital was. then laid which took 20 years to be built interestingly there was a split in the choice of the location for the new capital even before the uprising of 1857 the British had begun to build the residences to the north of Shah Jehanabad. which soon was relegated to the named oval Delhi today. the area houses civil lines and Delhi University among other prominent installations the second choice was that of rich and plains on the southern side of delegate it was the latter choice.
which was stumped by the expert committee after the survey by Lord Harding the site selection was really quite interesting because the sense was to use the ridge demolish. it cut it down and build a Capitol on that on that Ridge Lord Harding. I put his foot down on that one and he said that when you attack nature or disturb nature intrude in nature gets its back on you so they looked at at Raisina Hills there was the village of Murthal which was just next to the ridge. which is now March chana de Pury and there was this rice Sina here so they decided to go to rice in a hill they actually had to blast the top of .
The hill to create the base to build Russia with even because it was a hill and so that’s how it moved on the edge of the ridge rather than on the flatland of the ridge itself after the selection of site or the selection was to be made that of an architect and the town planner it was here Edwin Landseer Lutyens and Herbert Baker were entrusted with. the task to carve the Capitol Edwin Lutyens and Lancaster were two architects who were selected for the building of the Capital. which was the jewel in the colonial crown and Edwin Lutyens won the contract was then requested to partner with Herbert Baker so they became .
The partners who built New Delhi and Lancaster who lost the contract was invited by Ahmed Singh of Jodhpur to come there at a time of drought and build Omega one the seed of power was also to house the highest authority on the land the Viceroy built on a hillock all rice in a hill rush but even how’s the Viceroy of India till 1948 with Lord Mountbatten.
its last Imperial occupant the first difference between Baker and Lutyens was the gradient going up to Rashtrapati Bhavan. I won’t elaborate on that because it’s complicated but finally Baker had his way so when you look at Rashtrapati Bhavan from the base of Vijay chalk and you look up you see the dome you don’t see an imposing building standing there but you see north and south block clearly as you go up the paths you suddenly Russia party lovin Rises out of the gradient at the pinnacle of power but.
it is suppressed when you see it from Parliament house from the base cos India and it suited India because when we became independent you had the governing authority at a height you had the president. the titular head you only saw him as you the building in which he was launched as he went up the gradient the magnificent mansion is spreading over 130 acres with 340 rooms under its roof beautifully laid gardens and ceremonial halls is easily the most imposing sight of New Delhi seat of India’s tighter ahead the historic washed buddy Pawan has been a resident of 14 presidents since the birth of independent India. so it is very interesting in those days the the architect actually drew sketches so Latins and Baker drew sketches of how they in their imagination had envisaged.
The Central Area that is the Viceroy his house and north and south block coming down the gradient to what is now Vijay chalk and then Parliament house on the side. so let’s let’s look at that as the as the core area of of the new capital Lattin’s walked around wandered around went around India and was very influenced for instance by SAR not for the dome of Rashtrapati Bhavan if you look at the Dome of rashtrapati bhavan along its edge runs what runs along the pattern that runs along the Sanchi stupa for instance so you don’t feel when you walk into rashtrapati bhavan .
Rashtrapati Bhavan Structure
That you’re in some alien building and it’s like a museum for instance the pillars those have clearly Western to look at but he used the bell at the top of the pillar it’s called the Delhi order the every pillar in Russia with the Bhavan has four bells and the bell the Kunti is used in temples there is a certain religious significance. that is a cultural significance to bells and he brought that element in the floors beautiful motifs on the floors all inlaid so there is a great deal of interaction but we the Indian ethos and the Western very strong building ethos on two fronts of rashtrapati bhavan stands North Block and South Block called Secretariat buildings of the Imperial Capital.
today they house the key ministries of the Government of India while building the New Delhi the new Imperial Capital special emphasis was laid on not just a layout of the city but design on the buildings and other motives Lutyens shows the amalgamation of Indian and Western style something like the lotus flower that is extensively on the pillars and other structures as well other motives like jollies charges and chutney either used to apart from the charger he used the motif of the Lotus underneath the charger so when you look up at it you have a very nice inlay of the Lotus motif he then used courtyards now in India as we know habilis have quarter courtyards people sleep out in the summer they wet the floors of the courtyard it cools down the building.
He used a lot of those elements he used a lot of ventilation because you know that eight months nine months of the year are really unbearable without wind passing through and cooling down the insides of homes stone was used so stone can absorb the heat and therefore you needed the counterpoint to it he used calligraphers true draw and paint on the voltage ceilings of the long corridors so he used corridors princely india european concept of corridors and long ballrooms and all of that but he embellished it with indian motif so there was a very interesting mix of india and the west of the east and the west .
it is believed that the king actually directed him to do that to create a viceroy his house that is clearly in there and couldn’t not not a building that could be anywhere else in the world so it. it was a partnership of two cultures a shared legacy I call it in the outer lawns of north and south blocks still stands the symbol of then British Imperial dominance these four pillars at old statement of allegiance of den dominions of Australia South Africa New Zealand and Canada.
interestingly the idea was to actually face rashtrapati bhavan looking at Shahjahanabad Abad so if you see today’s its facing in the Rasta because beyond Rajput is the sports stadium and there’s in the bathtub supposedly. the first city of Delhi actually the idea was to connect it to the previous city of Delhi so they had wanted to face it that way Harding in in in fact had listened to the comment by Lancaster to face it towards Shahjahanabad but .
there was so much population along that road you know the Paragons and the rage and so on they couldn’t compensate all those people if they had to remove them and put them somewhere else the extractor couldn’t afford it so they decided to face it – in that Western well coming down to Raj but from Rajput even to India Gate side on the left flank stands the most powerful symbol of our democracy.
The Parliament House the great institution which has seen the evolution of the modern India the circular building which also hailed as an architectural marvel houses an interesting story behind its design there was an attempt by Baker to make it diagonal and that battle attends one the circular because he had conceived of cannot place based on the circular arcade in bath in England.
which is also and so he wanted from one circle to move to another circle and talking about circles symbolically his glasses were circle they were round glasses he wore if you go to rashtrapati bhavan in the gardens though there’s a wall around the swimming pool which is with big circles he used the circle motif on embellishments on inlay on the floor of some of the rooms in rashtrapati bhavan geometrics were very important in his balancing of design and you know design and motif.
I keep repeating the word motif because it was very important in the architecture of all the buildings in fact in the days of Imperial Capital the circle of wonder. how the Council of states the chamber of Prince’s Legislative Assembly and the Great Hall post-independence the chambers were renamed as Loksabha Rajasabha and third one house the Supreme Court of India for some time while the Great Hall was simply renamed at the central hall together these chambers have been witnessed the making of a whi Brent and diverse Republic its Hill .
New Delhi Structure And Design
The representatives of the citizens and the state shape the future of the nation of over 1.2 billion another feature of New Delhi is design and layout of its roads and lanes converging and meeting the historic Rajput the celebrated part of a grand and colorful Republic Day Parade if you take Kingsway which is now rajput it crossed in the middle with Queensway . which is not junk but Latins wanted that to be the cultural hub so you have the National Museum you have the National Archives and you have a G and C a so you have the National Museum National Library.
you have a cultural space and you have the National Archives so he conceived of the row trees because of the winds that come through northern India in the summer the loo his plantation and the road trees were actually to stop like a buffer to these sweeping winds they’d go round the road tree that the velocity would slow down so they didn’t sweep through the city they were stopped that was a concept and it worked the history of New Delhi remains incomplete without story of India Gate the War Memorial at the end of Rajput is today among the most flocked site .
Symbol Of Delhi
A symbol of not just the city but the country the India Gate forms the locus of the hexagonal section which marks the end of Raja the grand monument with the names of soldiers who fought for the British inscribed over it houses the eternal flame of an immortal soldier amar jawan Jyoti . the powerful symbol of countless courage valor and sacrifice india gate was built to commemorate those who died fighting with the british for the british sadly there’s no commemoration of all the indians who paid for and fought with the british for their victories anywhere in the world and it is only here in new delhi behind india gate stands lonely canopy which once housed the statue of king george v around india gate stands grand buildings which once served the residences or former heads and regions of india’s princely states.
About –Buland Darwaja
the abolition of principalities these buildings were acquired by the government of India today from a City Court High Court National Gallery of Modern Art’s and other government offices function out of these buildings the idea was that a long Raj but to have the Maharaja’s of different states owning properties which would be their residence in the imperial capital but independence came and that changed so. if you look at the far end where India Gate is you have princess Park the and we are sitting in one of those buildings began our house belonged to the Maharaja of the canal and then was taken over by .
the Government of India but these were built for those marriages has their personal residences Patiala house Jaipur house around this entire circle carefully crafted and well plan to allow Sun and air they stand at a symbol of city which has lived through the ages the trees very carefully thought through evergreen trees fruiting trees neem why name because neem was an antiseptic that kept away the insects and creepy crawlies through.
the summer the depth of the hedges of all the bungalows was a certain depth so that it buffered the sound of the street if you were sitting in your garden you didn’t need high walls for it you know . it was open there was no walls the the hedges became the walls that demarcated plots of residential areas in the city today these bungalows of Lawton Stelly are home to India’s powerful from the Prime Minister cabinet ministers to the leaders of political parties I don’t think New Delhi should be called lucky ends Delhi.
we use that carelessly lutton’s didn’t call it Lutyens Delhi the British didn’t call it Lawtons Delhi for the British it was an imperial capital they were building for the jewel in their crown for us. it was New Delhi the rest of it is shahjahanabad which we call Old Delhi for some reason it is Shah Jahan Awad there is in their press there is various layers of the cities of Delhi I think we should just call it New Delhi.